Reliable optimization of renewable energy system is the one that balances between electrical sizing of the system components in order to satisfy the load and the cost of that system. This techno-economic optimization can be assured by HOMER software through some sensitivity parameters such as capacity shortage. For Saharan villages in Africa, it is required to install off-grid power systems with low cost. To fulfill this requirement, is it necessary to avoid the over-sizing of system due to high and short peaks of load, so the optimization of PV-wind hybrid system on this article is done with sensitivity analysis of the system for different capacity shortage rates. The only rates that do not exceed the mean values of electrical outage of Algeria are 0 % and 0.5 %, and HOMER had favorited the optimal system with 0.5 % of capacity shortage due to the 18 % gain in total cost of system and the energy cost. The results achieved on this article encourage on techno-economical optimizing PV-wind hybrid systems with acceptable capacity shortage and electrical outage rates for a better economic feasibility in Saharan villages.
World Bank, 2017. Global tracking framework-progress toward sustainable energy 2017. Washington DC: The World Bank and the International Energy Agency. [Internet] 2017 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/energy/publication/global-tracking-framework-2017
World Bank, 2019. Electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa uptake, reliability, and complementary factors for economic impact. [Internet] 2019 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from: https://olc.worldbank.org/system/files/Electricity%20Access%20in%20Sub-Saharan%20Africa%20-%20Overview.pdf
Chirambo D. Addressing the renewable energy financing gap in Africa to promote universal energy access: Integrated renewable energy financing in Malawi. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016; 62: 793–803.
Pielli K, Dhungel H, Mason D, Tobin D, Gottfried D. Examining energy efficiency issues in Sub-Saharan Africa | U.S. agency for international development. [Internet] 2016 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from:
Mungai EM, Ndiritu SW, Da Silva I. Unlocking climate finance potential and policy barriers—A case of renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa. Resources, Environment and Sustainability. 2022; 7: 100043.
Chandel SS, Rawat R. Simulation and Optimization of Solar Photovoltaic-Wind standalone Hybrid system in Hilly Terrain of India. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2013; 3(3): 595–604.
Wesseh PK, Lin B. Output and substitution elasticities of energy and implications for renewable energy expansion in the ECOWAS region. Energy Pol. 2016; 89: 125-137.
AfDB. African, Development Report 2012 towards Green Growth in Africa, [Internet] 2012 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from: https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/African_Development_Report_2012.pdf Benallal A, Cheggaga N. Optimal Sizing of a Pv-Wind Hybrid System Using Measured and Generated Database. Algerian Journal of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development. 2021; 3(1): 34–44.
Halabi LM, Mekhilef S, Olatomiwa L, Hazelton J. Performance analysis of hybrid PV/diesel/battery system using HOMER: a case study Sabah, Malaysia. Energy Convers Manag. 2017; 144(3): 22-39.
Hwang H, Kim S, García AG, Kim J. Global sensitivity analysis for assessing the economic feasibility of renewable energy systems for an off-grid electrified city. Energy. 2021; 216: 119-218.
Benallal A, Cheggaga N. Impact of dust events on the optimization of photovoltaic-wind hybrid system in desert. Wind engineering. 2021; 45(6): 1506–1516.
Abdolrahimi H, Karegar HK. Optimization and sensitivity analysis of a hybrid system for a reliable load supply in Kish_Iran. International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research. 2012; 1(4): 217-225.
Lal DK, Dash BB, Akella AK. Optimization of PV/wind/micro-hydro/diesel hybrid power system in HOMER for the study area. International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics. 2011; 3(3): 307-325.
Lal S, Raturi A. Techno-economic analysis of a hybrid mini-grid system for Fiji Islands. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 2012: 1-10.
Mondal AH, Denich M. Hybrid systems for decentralized power generation in Bangladesh. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2010; 14: 48–55.
Shiroudi A, Rashidi R, Gharehpetian GB, Mousavifar SA, Foroud A. A. Case study: simulation and optimization of photovoltaic-wind-battery hybrid energy system in Taleghan-Iran using HOMER software. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 2012; 4: 1-11.
Zhou W, Lou C, Li Z, Lu L, Yang H. Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generation systems. Appl Energy. 2010; 87: 380-389.
Dursun B, Gokcol C, Umut I, Ucar A, Kocabey S. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid PV-Wind Power Generation System. International Journal of Green Energy. 2013; 10: 117–136.
Taylor M, Ilas A. Renewables: the True Costs IRENA ’ S Data and Analysis [Internet] 2017 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from: https://cms.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Articles/2017/Jul/Bonn-Uni-Lecture--True-costs-of-renewables.ashx?la=en&hash=EE46206B8F4CC3DE97394211DCC9A40EFACA27F9
Ibrahim ID, Hamam Y, Alayli Y, Jamiru T, Sadiku ER, Kupolati WK, et al. A review on Africa energy supply through renewable energy production: Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana and South Africa as a case study. Energy Strategy Reviews. 2021; 38: 100740.
Gyamfi S., Modjinou M., Djordjevic S. Improving electricity supply security in Ghana—the potential of renewable energy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015; 43: 1035–1045.
Pueyo A. What constrains renewable energy investment in Sub-Saharan Africa? A comparison of Kenya and Ghana. World Development. 2018; 109: 85–100.
Collier P, Venables AJ. Greening Africa? Technologies, endowments and the latecomer effect. Energy Economics. 2012; 34(1): 75–84.
Gratwick KN, Eberhard A. Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets. Energy Policy. 2008; 36 (10): 3948–3960.
Suberu MY, Mustafa MW, Bashir N, Muhamad NA, Mokhtar AS. Power sector renewable energy integration for expanding access to electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013; 25: 630–642.
Bhandari Y, Chalise S, Sternhagen J, Tonkoski R. Reducing fuel consumption in microgrids using PV, batteries, and generator cycling. IEEE International Conference on Electro-Information Technology; 2013 May 9-11; Rapid City, SD, USA: IEEE; 2013.
Kumar S, Taneja L, Kaur R. Design and control of residential off-grid connected PV systems. International Conference on Recent Developments in Control, Automation and Power Engineering; 2015 March 12-13; Noida, India: IEEE; 2015
Energy, Electrical outages, Days: Countries Compared. [Internet] 2013 [cited 2022 Apr 18]; Available from: https://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Energy/Electrical-outages/Days
Arangarajan V, Oo AMT, Shafiullah GM, Seyedmahmoudian M, Stojcevski A. Optimum design and analysis study of Stand-alone residential solar PV Microgrid. Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference; 2014 Sept 28.- Oct 1; Perth, WA, Australia: IEEE; 2014.
Mirzaei M, Vahidi B. Feasibility analysis and optimal planning of renewable energy systems for industrial loads of a dairy factory in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 2015; 7: 063114.