Possibilities of Using By-Products and Residues of Avocado Tree for Energy Generation in Chania, Crete, Greece


  •   John Vourdoubas


The use of renewable energies, including solid biomass, for energy generation is important in modern societies for coping with the current environmental challenges like climate change. The avocado-related biomass in Chania, Crete, Greece has been evaluated and its energy potential has been estimated. The reason of implementing the present study was the investigation of the possibilities of using the by-products and residues of the avocado tree in Chania for the production of valuable products and energy. Avocado’s fruit production in Crete is estimated at 6,300 tons annually while its by-products and residues have been evaluated at 550 dry tons annually. The avocado-related biomass in Chania is very low compared with the total biomass produced in Crete which is estimated in the range of 82,555 to 123,172 tons/year. Agriculture-related biomass in Crete is mainly produced from by-products and residues of olive trees, citrus trees, vineyard pruning and greenhouse wastes. The energy content of the avocado-related biomass in Crete has been estimated at 2.43 x 109Kcal/year which is very low compared with the heat content of the total biomass production in the island. It is concluded that due to the low quantity of avocado by-products and residues produced in Chania, Crete the best options for their utilization are either their use for heat generation in rural areas or their disposal into the fields enriching the soil with nutrients.

Keywords: Agriculture, avocado, biomass, by-products, Chania-Crete-Greece, energy, heat content, residues


Tauro R, Valazquez-Mart B, Manrique S, Ricker M, Martinez-Bravo R, Ruiz-Garcia VM, et al. Potential use of pruning residues from Avocado trees as energy input in rural communities. Energies. 2022; 15: 1715.

Garcia-Vargas MC, del Mar Contresas M, Castro E. Avocado-derived biomass as a source of bioenergy and bioproducts. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10: 8195.

Perea-Moreno AJ, Aguilera-Urena MJ, Marzano-Agugliaro F. Fuel properties of avocado stone. Fuel. 2016; 186: 358-364.

Paniagua S, Reyes S, Lima F, Pilipanko N, Calvo LF. Combustion of avocado crop residues effect of crop variety and nature of nutrients. Fuel. 2021; 291: 119660.

Antonopoulou V, Greek avocado: 4.7% growth in one year. [Internet] [cited 2022 March 16] Available from: greekfoodnews.com.

Alatzas S, Moustakas K, Malamis D, Vakalis S. Biomass potential from agricultural waste for energetic utilization in Greece. Energies. 2019; 12: 1095.

Christou M. Biomass potential in Greece. Center of Renewable Energy Sources, Athens, Greece. 2010. (Greek).

Tsepletidou A. Use of biomass for heating in the urban environment. Graduation Thesis, Aristotelio University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. 2013. (Greek).

Vamvuka D, Tsoutsos TD. Energy exploitation of agricultural residues in Crete. Energy Exploration and Exploitation. 2022; 20(1): 13-121.

Boukis I, Vassilakos N, Karellas S, Kakaras E. Techno-economic analysis of the energy exploitation of biomass residues in Heraklion Prefecture, Crete. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2008; 13(2): 362-377.

Michopoulos A, Skoulou V, Voulgari V, Tsikaloudaki A, Kyriakis NA. The exploitation of biomass for building space heating in Greece: energy, environmental and economic considerations. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014; 78: 276-285.

Santamarta JC, Jarabo F, Rodriguez-Martin J, Paz Arraiza M, Lopez JV. Analysis and potential of use of biomass energy in Canary islands, Spain. IERI Procedia. 2014; 8: 136-141.

Vourdoubas J. Present and future uses of biomass for energy generation in the island of Crete, Greece. Journal of Energy and Power Sources 2015; 2(40): 158-163.

Malico I, Carrajela J, Pinto Gomes C, Lima JC. Biomass residues for energy production and habitat preservation. Case study in a montado area in Southwestern Europe. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2016; 112: 3676-3683.

Vlyssides A, Mai S, Barampouti EM. Energy generation potential in Greece from agricultural waste and manure. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2015; 6(5): 747-757.

Papalexandrou T. Integrated energy recovery scenarios of biomass residues in the non-interconnected island of Crete: A pre-feasibility study in Greece. M.S. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology. 2015.

Vamvuka D, Bandelis G. Evaluation of wood residues from Crete as alternative fuels. International Journal of Energy and Environment. 2010; 1(4): 667-674.

Garcia-Vargas MC, del Mar Contresas M, Gomez-Cruz I, Romero-Garcia JM, Castro E. Avocado derived biomass: chemical composition and Antioxidant potential. Proceedings. 2021; 70(1): 100.

Vourdoubas J. Overview of heating greenhouses with renewable energy sources. A case study in Crete, Greece. Journal of Agricultutre and Environmental Sciences. 2015; 4(1): 70-76.

Vourdoubas J. Pellets production from olive tree by-products and residues: A case study in Crete-Greece. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. 2015; 4(2): 77-86.


How to Cite
Vourdoubas, J. (2022). Possibilities of Using By-Products and Residues of Avocado Tree for Energy Generation in Chania, Crete, Greece. European Journal of Energy Research, 2(2), 25–29. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejenergy.2022.2.2.59