Determinants of Household Energy Utilization and Changing Behaviour in Kenya: Structural Equation Modelling Approach


  •   Stephen K. Kimutai

  •   Zachary O. Siagi

  •   Paul M. Wambua


Knowing the determinants of household utilization and changing behaviour is an important element in understanding the pathways towards clean, sustainable and modern household energy sources. This study, therefore, examines the drivers of household energy usage and choices in Western Kenya using structural equation modelling from 560 sampled households. The research was carried out in Western Kenya (Uasin Gishu and Bungoma counties) from a target household of 663,000. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and were analyzed to find standard estimate (path coefficients), standard error, critical ratios and the level of significance using AMOS version 23. SEM analysis found that education level, income, residential status, peri urbanization, house size, house composition, age and gender of the household head were the determinants of household energy choices and changing behaviour among households both for cooking. On the other hand, SEM showed that household energy choices for lighting are significantly influenced by income level, family size, location, education level, and residential status. High income and more educated households residing in peri-urban were more likely to use cleaner cooking (LPG, electricity) while lesser households living in rural areas use firewood and agricultural residues for cooking. Rural households mostly adopt solar energy for domestic use because rural areas are isolated and detached from the power grid. Though income and education are the major factors, the research finds that numerous non-income factors similarly play a key role in determining household energy utilization and changing behaviour. This study offers the understanding of improving household energy planning and designing policy and interventions in Kenya and sub-Saharan African countries.

Keywords: Choices, determinants, household, SEM


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How to Cite
Kimutai, S. K., Siagi, Z. O., & Wambua, P. M. (2022). Determinants of Household Energy Utilization and Changing Behaviour in Kenya: Structural Equation Modelling Approach. European Journal of Energy Research, 2(4), 1–9.